Safavid Empire Economy. The presence of the caravanserais serves to further the claim that the flow of goods and services through Safavid Iran was constant.  According to Willem Floor and Edmund Herzig, “to Iran, Qandahar was a very important source of revenue, and its importance may also explain why there were intermittent military conflicts between the Mughals and Safavids over who controlled the city.” By the account of two British East India Company merchants, Richard Steel and John Crowther, in 1614: “Merchants of India assemble at Lahore, and invest a great part of their monies in commodities, and joyne themselves in caravans to passe the mountaines of Candahar into Persia, by which way is generally reported to passe twelve or fourteen thousand camels lading, whereas heretofore scarsly passed three thousand, the rest going by way or Ormus.” Accordingly, we can deduce that Indian merchants used the camel as a technology by which to transport massive amounts of goods overland via the Qandahar-Isfahan route. However, the use of the word “unbalanced” is not meant to imply a sense of instability or weakness, but rather represent the unique way in which the Safavid economy was positioned within the larger global economic system as a whole. The export aspect of Safavid Iran’s transit economy centered chiefly around the trading of silk. According to many historians, the Safavid empire marked the beginning of modern Persia. For example, according to Mathee, “in terms of economic output, Iran, with its small population and limited resources, lagged far behind the more populous areas of south and west Asia.” Yet, despite only having a population of approximately ten million people, its geographic location served as a “crucial entrepot for a number of commodities.” This included the export of silk to the West, overland and maritime trade of various consumer goods from India and southeast Asia westward, and the flow of precious metals back into the Indian subcontinent. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a spice in Ind… “Merchants in Safavid Iran: Participants and Perceptions.”, ———. The Safavid Empire was a theocracy; The state religion was Shi'a Islam; All other religions, and forms of Islam were suppressed; The Empire's economic strength … However, that should not diminish the importance of the rest of the trade route stretching from Qandahar to Isfahan, especially for Safavid Iran. vii. The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736. Ottoman (& safavid) empire 1450 1750 1. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Some of these camel caravans used an alternative route by way of modern day Hormuz. Iran had also declined militarily, leaving it more vulnerable to invasion, which came out of the east.  Historian Arash Khazeni states, “Crossing Balkh, above the snowy ridges of the Hindu Kush were trade routes connecting Afghanistan with Central Eurasia,” which can be seen below highlighted in red.  New Julfa soon became renowned for its silk production, drawing the attention of Shah Abbas himself. Indo-Iranian Commercial Relations,”. “Of Jewels and Horses: The Career and Patronage of an Iranian Merchant under Shah Jahan.”, Levi, Scott C. “India xiii. The Safavid dynasty (/ ˈ s æ f ə v ɪ d, ˈ s ɑː-/; Persian: دودمان صفوی , romanized: Dudmâne Safavi, pronounced [d̪uːd̪ˈmɒːne sæfæˈviː]) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. While silk had always been a highly sought after Persian commodity, dating back to ancient times, the Safavid era produced one of the most lucrative silk industries of the early modern world. Scott C. Levi, “India xiii. Start studying The Safavid Empire (MODERN WORLD HISTORY). How long will the footprints on the moon last? How was Safavid culture part of the empire's economy. The Safavid Empire was predeceased by The Mongol Empire. Founded by Shah Ismail I, the empire … Safavid Iran generated economic growth by capitalizing on transit trade, or the business associated with the passage of goods and services through a territory to their final destination. Abbas 1 of Persia Abbas 1 of Persia came into power after his predecisor Mohammad had resigned. Evidence of this phenomenon is fairly well documented, as it served as the catalyst which transformed civilizations in nearly every corner of the world. How do you what a fish looks like if come a cross one? Stephen Dale states that Iran and Turan, which refers to the land of the Tur, or modern day Central Asia, “raised a surplus of horses that Mughal rulers, commanders, and cavalrymen valued as mounts.” These horses traveled to India via the overland trade routes, such as the Qandahar-Isfahan route, passing through provinces like Balkh along the way. As such, they were often frequented by traveling merchants and quickly became vital to profitable commercial activity for those merchants. Handwoven carpets were very popular. In India, in places as varied as Surat, Ahmedabad and Agta, interest rates fell from 72per centto 6-9 per cent per annum between the 1620s and the 1680s,21 The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Econonry 37 ln an annual minimum of 6 per cent was charged in Sural.zz In lran, in con- 1697, trast, commercial loans around 7640 carriedanannualinterest oft5 to 20 per cent, while Banyan … Individual pages signify the copyright for the content on that page. 1450 – 1750 Janet Pareja, Signature School, Evansville, IN 2. What does contingent mean in real estate? All Rights Reserved. According to historians, since time immemorial agriculture has always been the backbone of economy of the country. Wealth and power for respect Divorce wasn't a difficult process Arabic and Persian languages are similar Women: If you got divorced after being married, it was easy to divorce To gain wealth and power, women became prostitutes Prostituting included dancing, singing, along with Their religious… Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. According to Elphinstone, the environs of Balkh, highlighted in yellow below (Figure 5), encompassed the “the valleys between the Hindu Kush and Oxus River.” Balkh was a key province that included many districts north of the Hindu Kush, and according to Elphinstone, the province had a population of around one million people. During the reign of Shah Abbas (1588-1629), the Safavid conquest of Gilan, Mazandaran and Julfa saw the forced migration of Armenian populations to Isfahan. However, the same cannot be said of their commercial relationships with their neighbors to the East and Southeast. In regards to Russian transactions, Mathee claims “a contemporary source indicates that the Russians had to pay half to one-third of the price of the goods they received from Iran in the form of silver and gold coins.” We can infer from this information that Safavid Iran maintained a trade surplus with the major players to the North and West.  While passing through Qandahar on their way from India to Iran, Steel and Crowther reported that, “prior to the start of these hostilities, around 1614, not more than 3,000 camels used to ply the India-Qandahar-Iran trade route annually, while after that year their number increased to 12,000 and even 14,000.” Furthermore, Steel and Crowther estimated that “the value of the goods per camel was 120-130 rupees, so the total value of trade that year was about 1.4-1.8 million rupees (16-20 metric tones of silver. The Safavid Empire, based in Persia , ruled over much of southwestern Asia from 1501 to 1736. Ultimately, the product of these trends points towards the emergence of a truly global economy.  In regards to exports, the Mughals also had the Safavids bested in terms of the amount and type of goods and services exported. There are several contributing factors which resulted in Safavid Iran’s comparatively irregular economic construction. in Turkey, to train administrators to replace the traditional warrior elite. Early on, the Safavids were at a disadvantage to the better-armed Ottomans, but they soon closed the arms gap. Essentially, a select group of industrializing Western powers experienced an increase in demand and consumption, thereby triggering an increase in the production and transport of goods and resources from the East. The dynasty began as a Sufi order but evolved into a major gunpowder empire. Furthermore, this map also highlights several important ancient trade routes which will be discussed in later sections of this paper. The empire made Iran … The shah saw to it that the Armenians of New Julfa received privileged treatment. The first Safavid king, Esmāʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), initiated a process of political and religious change in Persia that profoundly affected the economic structure. Proceeds are donated to charity.  Shah Abbas then used the far-reaching Armenian diaspora in order to expand the impressive Safavid silk trade well into economies and metropolitan areas all over Europe and Asia. The Safavids were admired for Originally published by Middle Eastern Communities and Migrations Student Research Papers, James Madison University Scholarly Commons, 06.27.2017, under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license. Brewminate uses Infolinks and is an Amazon Associate with links to items available there. Members of the Safavid Dynasty likely were of Kurdish Persian descent and belonged to a unique order of Sufi -infused Shi'a Islam called Safaviyya. “Between Venice and Surat: The Trade in Gold in Late Safavid Iran.”, ———. Read his obituary, share your memories and condolences, get key updates, and see any funeral details on Safavid Empire's personal online memorial on Ever Loved. For this reason, the role which Iran’s economy played during the Safavid era was essential to laying the foundation for the modern global economy as we know it. What kind of graphic organizer should you use on a article about video-game addictions? FROM THE SAFAVIDS THROUGH THE ZANDS. “The Horse Trade in Eighteenth-Century South Asia.”, Ikram, S. M., Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf. Some of these manufactured articles included: cotton cloth, indigo, saltpeter, spices, opium, sugar, silk cloth, yarn, salt, beads, borax, turmeric, lac, sealing wax and drugs of various kinds. For the Mughals, a majority of their trade relations with Persia began and ended in Lahore. The Safavid Empire was not a conquest state: Safavid conquest did not imply a change in the form of administration. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? The Silk Road, which led through northern Iran to India, revived in the sixteenth century. As a result, conventional wisdom has incorrectly bred the notion that Safavid Iran’s economic impact was minimal. The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense. According to leading Safavid historian Rudi Mathee, “while Iran’s economic output is unknown and probably unknowable, it is clear that its contribution to worldwide economic activities was relatively slight.” However, this should not imply that Safavid Iran’s impact was somehow irrelevant or nonexistent. “Empires and Emporia: Palace, Mosque, Market, and Tomb in Istanbul, Isfahan, Agra, and Delhi.”, Fernee, Tadd Graham. Weaknesses of the Safavid Empire. Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine The Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine was origanly built in 799, but was ordered to be reconstructed in 1508. They relied mainly on the technology and tactics that the Persian emperors before them had left. This is due to one simple fact: Safavid Iran possessed vital geographic proximity between the highly productive Orient and consumption hungry Europe. “Trade, State Policy and Regional Change: Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial Relations, C. 1550-1750.”, Bryce, Derek, Kevin D. O’Gorman, and Ian W.F. 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