http://www.caper.ca/~assets/pdf_1999-00_CAPER_Census.pdf, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1908-2, Health policy, reform, governance and law. World Health Organization Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel. CMGs are going to the US for post-graduate training in smaller numbers and, are less likely to remain than at any time since the 1970’s. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/about-ama/physician-data-resources/physician-masterfile.page? Mullan F. The metrics of the physician brain drain. The report tracked doctor incomes and found total gross clinical payments through medical plans was $27.4 billion in 2017-2018, an increase of 3.9 per cent over the previous year, Ballinger said. Typically IMGs to Canada and the US have come from low and middle income nations creating physician shortages in donor countries , raising ethical concerns [26, 27]. “There is not as yet a lot of evidence that US recruiters are up here looking for physicians the way they were back in the 1990s and early 2000s,” notes the CMA. 2009 IMGs in Canada: 1972–2007. Qual Prim Care. According to 2013 OECD health statistics, at 2.4 practicing doctors per 1,000 people, Canada ranks 28th out of 34 OECD countries. Cancer. 1999 Physicians for Ontario: Too many? Archieved at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/delivery-prestation/fptcollab/2004-fmm-rpm/bg-fi-eng.php. Dr. Stephen Petterson is Research Director of the Robert Graham Center for Policy Studies in Family Medicine and Primary Care in Washington, D.C. Mr. Sean Finnegan is Health GIS Research Manager at the Robert Graham Center for Policy Studies in Family Medicine and Primary Care in Washington, D.C. Dr. Andrew Bazemore is Director of the Robert Graham Center for Policy Studies in Family Medicine and Primary Care in Washington D.C. and Associate Professor in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Cincinnati. 2015. 3. Dr. Freeman was supported as a Visiting Scholar at The Robert Graham Center. BMC Health Services Research The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a ‘brain drain’ and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. The AMA Masterfile is available for purchase and its use is governed by a User-Customer Agreement. If you’re moving from Canada to the US, it could be for one of a few reasons. Thousands of Canadian citizens move to the United States each year for employment opportunities, business, family, or lifestyle. Google Scholar. 2004. ‘Push’ and ‘pull’ factors may help explain these changes. He was Visiting Scholar at the Graham Center for Research in Family Medicine and Primary Care in Washington, D.C. in May, 2013. A significant dearth of doctors … Supply, distribution and migration of Canadian physicians. Both countries are signatory to the World Health Organization Global Code on International Recruitment of Health Personnel  which recommends cross-border collaboration around data collection. Accessed 17 Aug 2016. Difficulty finding suitable employment for recently trained specialists, in part due to reduced hospital funding, all contribute to a potential increase in ‘push’ factors. Available at: https://www.cma.ca/Assets/assets-ibrary/document/en/advocacy/Projections_paper-e.pdf. Because of the national and international implications of the emigration pattern of Canadian physicians we decided to re-examine what changes, if any, have taken place in these patterns in years subsequent to Phillips et al. This study was fully compliant with the terms of this agreement including data security. MD Financial Management, Canadian Medical Association. The US distribution of physicians from lower income countries. Accessed 25 Nov 2016. The annual reports of the Canadian Resident Matching Service, the Canadian Post-MD Education Programs and the Canadian Collaborative Centre for Physician Resources are all freely available on the websites of those organizations. Further, there is risk of undercounting physicians who have finished residency training but who are not yet counted in the physician workforce. Accessed 5 Nov 2016. PubMed Central American doctors would have to convene Canadian standards of medical education. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 2012;10950:396–410. Accessed 17 Aug 2016. Accessed 25 Nov 2016. Phillips Jr RL, Fryer Jr GE, Petterson S, Rosser W. The Canadian contribution to the US physician workforce. the US or Canada for over 10 years). Int J Health Policy Manag. No individual identifiers were utilized. BMC Health Serv Res 16, 678 (2016). Article However, to date, this expansion has not been matched by an increase in the number of Graduate Medical Education (GME) positions, creating a bottleneck in the training of American educated physicians and a barrier to Canadian and internationally trained physicians seeking to do postgraduate training in the US. That rate has continued to decline, notes Freeman, who is also a professor at the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry in London, Ont. Family doctors saw the greatest pay increase: more than $1.5 billion collectively between 1992/93 and 2009/10. 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